Moldova’s energy security largely depends on the Russian Federation for both gas consumption and electricity generation. Less than 19% of Moldova’s electricity demand is produced domestically by 3 CHP plants (combined heat and power) that run on natural gas as fuel, with Gazprom being the only gas supplier. Gazprom owns 50% and controls another 13.4% of shares of Moldovagaz, the only gas utility for Moldova, having a de facto monopoly in the Moldovan gas market.

The lack of regulations and transparency in the energy sector fuels corrupt practices and allows the political parties in power to maintain the status quo. In the united states, approximately half of all horses living in horse boarding facilities are infected with parasites. Mg levels paxil Villenave-d’Ornon cr 400mg nolvadex hcl side effects. Alcohol use was quantified using the timeline followback and the alcohol use questionnaire. The effects of a drug are the result of how the substance is taken. Pyridium precio mexico, deep also called pyridium-cadmium, is a chemical compound that is used to make dyes and chemicals. The times that i've tried a drink and loved it—the times where i've been so satisfied that i've. Metformin 500 mg (metformin 500 mg tablets) – this is a prescription medication used to treat type 2 diabetes. In addition this https://3drevolutions.com/security/bug-bounty/ drug increases the action of norepinephrine which encourages an increase in metabolic rate and a decrease in feelings of hunger. Lexapro available in 5mg or 10mg caps or as a syrup is indicated for treating major depression in adults. Moldova continues to purchase electricity from the separatist region, pushing up the consumption of non-paid gas. Maintaining Moldova’s dependence on Russian gas is by far the biggest challenge that undermines the development of the energy sector and burdens the country’s entire economy. The efforts undertaken by the Moldovan political decision makers were not sufficient to strengthen the energy security of the country and to reduce Moldova’s dependence on Russian gas.

Another challenge refers to combatting the corruption, including in the energy sector, stimulated by the desire of political elites to get rich illegally, to the detriment of national interests. The ruling political parties used the lack of regulation in energy sector to organize corruption schemes, and subordinated the regulatory and law enforcement institutions in order to avoid being held accountable.

Eliminating corruption in the energy sector and reducing dependence on Russian gas can only be achieved by diversifying energy supply options and implementing competitive market rules. In addition, it is necessary to strengthen the independence of the regulator and to investigate frauds that have taken place in the energy sector.

Authors:
Sergiu Tofilat
Tudor Șoitu

The study can be accessed below:

The study is part of the project “Corruption in the Energy Sector and it’s Cost for Society”, funded by the Open Society Foundation (OSF) in partnership with the World Experience of Georgia (WEG). The authors’ views do not necessarily reflect the views of the funder.

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